Tuesday, 3 April 2018


How to define 'register'?


Different newspapers have different styles, use of language, formats - and this can be seen when comparing the same news stories:

On immigration and Brexit:
Brexit news: Theresa May WILL BE ‘pushed into a corner’ on immigration negotiations | UK | News | Express.co.uk
Theresa May needs to be honest with the public about post-Brexit immigration | The Independent

On celebrities:
Declan Donnelly to host Saturday Night Takeaway alone, ITV confirms | Television & radio | The Guardian
Saturday Night Takeaway: Ant McPartlin's absence addressed by Dec Donnelly | TV & Radio | Showbiz & TV | Express.co.uk
Declan Donnelly receives standing ovation after presenting Saturday Night Takeaway alone | The Independent

On business:
Political posturing must not kill GKN deal - Telegraph
Investors trying to takeover British Spitfire engineering firm branded ‘corporate vultures’ by MPs - The Sun
GKN will be stripped and sold for parts by ghouls who have no interest in making things | Will Hutton | Opinion | The Guardian
Business Secretary is accused of paving the way for vultures to buy British defence giant GKN | Daily Mail Online


Writing genres (commonly known, more narrowly, as literary genres) are determined by narrative techniquetonecontent, and sometimes length. The most general genres are epic, tragedy, comedy and creative non-fiction. They are generally (not always) defined by the cultural movement of the historical period of time in which they were composed.
List of writing genres - Wikipedia

12 Different Styles of Writing and How to Write Them Well

Being a good all-round writer means mastering a host of different skills.
Most people can manage a couple of different types of writing well, but struggle when it comes to others; perhaps they have the ready humour and sense of timing that’s required for a good speech, but can’t organise their thoughts coherently enough for a business report. Perhaps they have the imagination and flair for beautiful prose, but come unstuck when required to operate within the tighter confines of producing marketing copy. Or perhaps they can write a fantastic academic essay, but can’t write in a way that’s accessible to a less informed audience.
There are some rules of writing that apply for almost any purpose, such as considering your audience; varying your sentence length; and taking time to think about whether sesquipedalian verbiage is more appropriate or if it would be better to use nice short words. But it’s just as often the case that what’s right for one form of writing is wrong for another. 
12 Different Styles of Writing and How to Write Them Well - Oxford Royale Academy

Styles of Writing

Experienced readers will instinctively recognise the various writing styles, these include:

  • Academic writing
  • Articles from academic journals
  • Journalistic writing (news media)
  • Fiction (imaginary)
  • Non-fiction (factual)

Styles Of Writing | SkillsYouNeed

Joyce brings this skill to bear in Ulysses, where we are exposed to an enormous number of different styles within the covers of one book. In "Aeolus," we find Joyce pulling newspaper headlines from the speech-stream. In "Cyclops," we get 33 parodies of different styles of writing, each picking up on things the characters are speaking or thinking about in the scene. In "Nausicaa," Joyce satirizes sentimental literature for young girls, and in "Circe," he writes a surrealist play using the dreamscapes of Leopold Bloom and Stephen Dedalus. In "Ithaca," he employs the form of a catechism as he describes Stephen and Bloom having cocoa in Bloom's kitchen. But perhaps nothing is quite as impressive as "Oxen of the Sun," in which Joyce literally re-enacts the development of the English language from early translations of Latin verse to contemporary Dublin slang by moving fluidly from one style to another.

Ulysses Writing Style

Pastiche - Intertextuality
BBC Radio 4 Extra - The Write Stuff, Series 14, PG Wodehouse


Written and oral styles of English

Language and Style

From formal style to informal style - how are they different ?

In any language, different styles of expression are appropriate in different situations. We can go from the formal to the informal, the written to the spoken, from technical language (or jargon) to slang. 
  There are no "rules" as such; nevertheless, there are plenty of features which distinguish formal styles from informal styles. Here are some of them.

Principles of English style:

Note: these are principles: they are by no means to be considered as "rules". 
  • a) The more formal a document  is, the more it will use inanimate nouns as subjects of a sentence.
  • b) The more formal language is, the more it is likely to use passive structures.
  • c) The more formal language is, the more verbal nouns it will use.
  • d) The more formal a d ocument is, the more words of Latin origin it will use.
  • a) The more informal or spontaneous language is, the more it will use humans as the subjects of sentences.
  • b) The more informal a text is, the less it will use passive structures,
  • c) The moreinformal a text is, the more it will use verb structures (where a choice is possible) instead of verbal nouns.
  • b) The more informal or spoken a text is, the more words of Germanic origin it will use.
Styles of English and their main features

Twelve Days Correspondence... John Julius Norwich


What is Register in Linguistics?

In linguistics, the register is defined as the way a speaker uses language differently in different circumstances. Think about the words you choose, your tone of voice, even your body language. You probably behave very differently chatting with a friend than you would at a formal dinner party or during a job interview. These variations in formality, also called stylistic variation, are known as registers in linguistics.
They are determined by such factors as social occasion, contextpurpose, and audience.
Registers are marked by a variety of specialized vocabulary and turns of phrases, colloquialisms and the use of jargon, and a difference in intonation and pace; in "The Study of Language," linguist George Yule describes the function of jargon as helping " to create and maintain connections among those who see themselves as 'insiders' in some way and to exclude 'outsiders'."
Registers are used in all forms of communication, including written, spoken, and signed. Depending on grammar, syntax, and tone, the register may be extremely rigid or very intimate. You don't even need to use an actual word to communicate effectively. A huff of exasperation during a debate or a grin while signing "hello" speaks volumes.
What is Register in Linguistics?


Register – choosing appropriate language for the context

Not only do we have to learn the grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation etc.. we also need to make sure that we use it  appropriately and in the right context.
No peace for the wicked – goes the saying, a constant vigilance in language learning is also required to make sure that we become expert and versatile English users. Selecting the right language for the right situation is important to demonstrate our expertise and to keep us out of hot water!
Consider the following sentences:
  • Would you like a cup of coffee?
  • Joe – coffee?
  • Can I get you a coffee?
Formal, informal and neutral. I’m sure that you can imagine the people to whom each of these should be addressed (boss, friend and someone you don’t know very well).

Register – choosing appropriate language for the context | Rliberni's Blog - Radical language

PressReader.com - Connecting People Through News
Peter Trudgill | Topic | The New European
Rail fares: we've gone from passengers to customers to mugs - Telegraph
If I were king for a day, my trains would take passengers, not customers | Richard J Evans | Opinion | The Guardian

It's all about the right language in the right place:
Jay Doubleyou: got a room

And what is (in-)appropriate:
Jay Doubleyou: teaching taboo vocab in the esl classroom

Finally, a little more literature:
Jay Doubleyou: the language of money... the language of religion... the language of love...
Jay Doubleyou: archaic language part four

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

It's good to know business english properly, otherwise you look less professional and your reputation suffers. What is more, we should also focus on good business advertising, like email campaigns. Luckily there are simple and effective tools to help us do it!